Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. Pages Received 22 Jan Article Metrics Views. Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. Login options Log in. Username Password Forgot password? Shibboleth OpenAthens. Katharina Friederich, Sirko Stenz, Farshad Mohammad-Avvali, Papst: Mit Freundschaft zu Muslimen gegen Islamismus. Dabei hat sich eine Ideologie besonders hervorgetan, der Islamismus. Sachsen: Warum man Islam und Islamismus verwechseln kann. Noch vor Jahren Islamismus im Internet: Terror-Propaganda — Was tun gegen die Experten schlagen Alarm.
Und die Politik fordert mehr Verantwortung Nimes idea — Islam und Islamismus sind nicht mehr zu unterscheiden. Er gab am The party's president argues this policy will help protect women from sexual harassment. While Qutb's ideas became increasingly radical during his imprisonment prior to his execution in , the leadership of the Brotherhood, led by Hasan al-Hudaybi , remained moderate and interested in political negotiation and activism. Fringe or splinter movements inspired by the final writings of Qutb in the mids particularly the manifesto Milestones , a. Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq did, however, develop and they pursued a more radical direction.
The path of violence and military struggle was then taken up by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization responsible for the assassination of Anwar Sadat in Its views were outlined in a pamphlet written by Muhammad Abd al-Salaam Farag, in which he states:. Another of the Egyptian groups which employed violence in their struggle for Islamic order was al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya Islamic Group. Victims of their campaign against the Egyptian state in the s included the head of the counter-terrorism police Major General Raouf Khayrat , a parliamentary speaker Rifaat al-Mahgoub , dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and over Egyptian police.
The Democratic Union of Muslims, a party founded in , planned to take part in municipal elections. They presented candidate lists for 50 different cities. The rise of the party can be attributed to French Muslim dissatisfaction with mainstream political parties. Hamas is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that governs the Gaza Strip where it has moved to establish sharia law in matters such as separation of the genders, using the lash for punishment, and Islamic dress code.
For some decades prior to the First Palestine Intifada in ,  the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine took a "quiescent" stance towards Israel,  focusing on preaching, education and social services, and benefiting from Israel's "indulgence" to build up a network of mosques and charitable organizations. Rather than being more moderate than the PLO, the Hamas charter took a more uncompromising stand, calling for the destruction of Israel and the establishment of an Islamic state in Palestine.
The Brotherhood's base of devout middle class found common cause with the impoverished youth of the intifada in their cultural conservatism and antipathy for activities of the secular middle class such as drinking alcohol and going about without hijab. Hamas has continued to be a major player in Palestine. From to it killed people in suicide bombing or "martyrdom operations".
Hamas has been praised by Muslims for driving Israel out of the Gaza Strip ,  but criticized for failure to achieve its demands in the —09 and Gaza Wars despite heavy destruction and significant loss of life. Early in the history of the state of Pakistan 12 March , a parliamentary resolution the Objectives Resolution was adopted in accordance with the vision of founding fathers of Pakistan Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Jinnah , Liaquat Ali Khan.
Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust. This resolution later became a key source of inspiration for writers of the Constitution of Pakistan , and is included in the constitution as preamble. Ali Bhutto, a leftist in democratic competition with Islamists, had announced banning alcohol and nightclubs within six months, shortly before he was overthrown.
Zia ul Haq was an admirer of Mawdudi and Mawdudi's party Jamaat-e-Islami became the "regime's ideological and political arm". For many years, Sudan had an Islamist regime under the leadership of Hassan al-Turabi.
His National Islamic Front first gained influence when strongman General Gaafar al-Nimeiry invited members to serve in his government in Turabi built a powerful economic base with money from foreign Islamist banking systems, especially those linked with Saudi Arabia. He also recruited and built a cadre of influential loyalists by placing sympathetic students in the university and military academy while serving as minister of education. After al-Nimeiry was overthrown in the party did poorly in national elections, but in it was able to overthrow the elected post-al-Nimeiry government with the help of the military.
Turabi was noted for proclaiming his support for the democratic process and a liberal government before coming to power, but strict application of sharia law, torture and mass imprisonment of the opposition,  and an intensification of the long-running war in southern Sudan,  once in power.
After Sudanese intelligence services were implicated in an assassination attempt on the President of Egypt, UN economic sanctions were imposed on Sudan, a poor country, and Turabi fell from favor. Some of the NIF policies, such as the war with the non-Muslim south, have been reversed, though the National Islamic Front still holds considerable power in the government of Omar al-Bashir and National Congress Party , another Islamist party in country.
Switzerland is not normally seen as a center of Islamism, especially when compared to countries such as Belgium or France. However, from to , the majority of the country's jihadist and would-be jihadist population were radicalized in Switzerland. Turkey had a number of Islamist parties, often changing names as they were banned by the constitutional court for anti-secular activities.
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The Justice and Development Party AKP , which has dominated Turkish politics since , is sometimes described as Islamist, but rejects such classification. Hizb ut-Tahrir is an influential international Islamist movement, founded in by an Islamic Qadi judge Taqiuddin al-Nabhani.
HT is unique from most other Islamist movements in that the party focuses not on implementation of Sharia on local level or on providing social services, but on unifying the Muslim world under its vision of a new Islamic caliphate spanning from North Africa and the Middle East to much of central and South Asia.
To this end it has drawn up and published a article constitution for its proposed caliphate-state specifying specific policies such as sharia law, a "unitary ruling system" headed by a caliph elected by Muslims, an economy based on the gold standard , public ownership of utilities, public transport, and energy resources, death for apostates and Arabic as the "sole language of the State.
In its focus on the Caliphate, the party takes a different view of Muslim history than some other Islamists such as Muhammad Qutb. HT sees Islam's pivotal turning point as occurring not with the death of Ali , or one of the other four rightly guided Caliphs in the 7th century, but with the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in HT does not engage in armed jihad or work for a democratic system, but works to take power through "ideological struggle" to change Muslim public opinion, and in particular through elites who will "facilitate" a "change of the government," i. It allegedly attempted and failed such coups in and in Jordan, and in in Egypt, and is now banned in both countries.
The party is sometimes described as "Leninist" and "rigidly controlled by its central leadership,"  with its estimated one million members required to spend "at least two years studying party literature under the guidance of mentors Murshid " before taking "the party oath.
In the UK its rallies have drawn thousands of Muslims,  and the party has been described by two observers Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke to have outpaced the Muslim Brotherhood in both membership and radicalism. Originating as the Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in , ISIL pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in , participated in the Iraqi insurgency that followed the invasion of Iraq by Western coalition forces in , joined the fight in the Syrian Civil War beginning in , and was expelled from al-Qaeda in early , which complained of its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence"  .
ISIL gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq in an offensive in June that same year. Islamist movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood , "are well known for providing shelters, educational assistance, free or low cost medical clinics, housing assistance to students from out of town, student advisory groups, facilitation of inexpensive mass marriage ceremonies to avoid prohibitively costly dowry demands, legal assistance, sports facilities, and women's groups.
The Arab world —the original heart of the Muslim world—has been afflicted with economic stagnation. For example, it has been estimated that in the mid s the exports of Finland, a country of five million, exceeded those of the entire Arab world of million, excluding oil revenue. Strong population growth combined with economic stagnation has created urban agglomerations in Cairo, Istanbul, Tehran, Karachi , Dhaka , and Jakarta each with well over 12 million citizens, millions of them young and unemployed or underemployed.
Islamism can also be described as part of identity politics , specifically the religiously-oriented nationalism that emerged in the Third World in the s: " resurgent Hinduism in India , Religious Zionism in Israel , militant Buddhism in Sri Lanka , resurgent Sikh nationalism in the Punjab , ' Liberation Theology ' of Catholicism in Latin America , and Islamism in the Muslim world. The modern revival of Islamic devotion and the attraction to things Islamic can be traced to several events.
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It is argued that either the claims of Islam were false and the Christian or post-Christian West had finally come up with another system that was superior, or Islam had failed through not being true to itself. Thus, a redoubling of faith and devotion by Muslims was called for to reverse this tide.
The connection between the lack of an Islamic spirit and the lack of victory was underscored by the disastrous defeat of Arab nationalist-led armies fighting under the slogan "Land, Sea and Air" in the Six-Day War , compared to the perceived near-victory of the Yom Kippur War six years later. In that war the military's slogan was "God is Great". Along with the Yom Kippur War came the Arab oil embargo where the Muslim Persian Gulf oil-producing states' dramatic decision to cut back on production and quadruple the price of oil, made the terms oil, Arabs and Islam synonymous—with power—in the world, and especially in the Muslim world's public imagination.
As the Islamic revival gained momentum, governments such as Egypt's, which had previously repressed and was still continuing to repress Islamists, joined the bandwagon. They banned alcohol and flooded the airwaves with religious programming,  giving the movement even more exposure. Starting in the mids the Islamic resurgence was funded by an abundance of money from Saudi Arabian oil exports. Throughout the Muslim world, religious institutions for people both young and old, from children's maddrassas to high-level scholarships received Saudi funding,  "books, scholarships, fellowships, and mosques" for example, "more than mosques were built and paid for with money obtained from public Saudi funds over the last 50 years" ,  along with training in the Kingdom for the preachers and teachers who went on to teach and work at these universities, schools, mosques, etc.
The funding was also used to reward journalists and academics who followed the Saudis' strict interpretation of Islam; and satellite campuses were built around Egypt for Al-Azhar University , the world's oldest and most influential Islamic university. The interpretation of Islam promoted by this funding was the strict, conservative Saudi-based Wahhabism or Salafism.
In its harshest form it preached that Muslims should not only "always oppose" infidels "in every way," but "hate them for their religion Qatar stands out among state sponsors of Islamism as well. Over the past two decades, the country has exerted a semi-formal patronage for the international movement of the Muslim Brotherhood. Former Qatari Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani in particular has distinguished himself as one of the most dedicated supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood and of Islamist movements in general both in the Middle Eastern region and across the globe.
In the Muslim Brotherhood was disbanded in Qatar. The country's longstanding support for the group has been often explained as determined by a strategic calculus that limited the role played by religion in Qatar. Qatar's patronage has been primarily expressed through the ruling family's endorsement of Muslim Brotherhood's most representative figures, especially Yusuf al-Qaradawi. Qaradawi is a prominent, yet controversial Sunni preacher and theologian who continues to serve as the spiritual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood. He left Qatar to return to Egypt shortly before the Egyptian Revolution.
For twenty years, Qaradawi has hosted a popular show titled Shariah and Life on the Qatari-based media channel Al-Jazeera , a government sponsored channel notoriously supportive of the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamism and often designated as a propaganda outlet for the Qatari government.
His positions, as well as his controversial ties to extremist and terrorist individuals and organizations, made him persona non grata to the U. Beyond the visibility and political protection granted to Yussuf al-Qaradawi, Qatar has historically hosted several Muslim Brothers especially after Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi , a Muslim Brotherhood representative, was overthrown in July Qatar's political and financial support for Islamist movements and factions was not limited to the Egyptian case.
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Qatar is known to have backed Islamist factions in Libya, Syria and Yemen. In Libya in particular, Qatar has supported the Islamist government established in Tripoli. The flow of weapons was not suspended after Gaddafi's government was removed. Hamas, as well, has been among the primary beneficiaries of Qatar's financial support. More recently, Qatar has channeled material support to Hamas' terrorist operations by exploiting its official commitment to finance Gaza reconstruction. Mostly through "truckloads of construction material being shipped into Gaza", Qatar has funneled dual-use substances that could be employed to produce explosives into Gaza.
In a interview with Al-Hayat Hamas politburo declared that most of Qatar's support was collected through charities and popular committees. Officially through its "Ghaith" initiative but also through conspicuous donations that preceded the "Ghaith" program, Qatar Charity has financed the building or reconstruction of mosques and cultural institutes across the globe.
During the s and sometimes later, Western and pro-Western governments often supported sometimes fledgling Islamists and Islamist groups that later came to be seen as dangerous enemies. The US spent billions of dollars to aid the mujahideen Muslim Afghanistan enemies of the Soviet Union, and non-Afghan veterans of the war returned home with their prestige, "experience, ideology, and weapons", and had considerable impact. Although it is a strong opponent of Israel's existence, Hamas , officially created in , traces back its origins to institutions and clerics supported by Israel in the s and s.
Israel tolerated and supported Islamist movements in Gaza, with figures like Ahmed Yassin , as Israel perceived them preferable to the secular and then more powerful al-Fatah with the PLO. His "encouraging of the emergence of the Islamist movement" was said to have been "imitated by many other Muslim leaders in the years that followed. Sadat was later assassinated and a formidable insurgency was formed in Egypt in the s.